First, the audit requirements are costly to implement, and, because of differences between the nonprofit and for-profit sectors, the provisions impose a greater burden on 116. Unfortunately, marketing literature is unable to provide meaningful guidance because scant research attention has hampered a fuller understanding of why people help. Different second hand books from different sellers may have different conditions. Copyright 1987 by American Economic Association. Perceptual factors may offer more utility in this regard. For donors who are unwilling or unable to wade personally through tax forms, there are several charity watchdog groups that analyze tax forms and other available information, create user-friendly summaries, and advise donors as to which nonprofits are the most worthy of donations.
Additionally, the California Act imposes a greater cost on society at large than the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Although bequest income accounts for 9% of overall giving in the United States many nonprofits continue to focus their solicitation efforts on the very wealthy, ignoring the bulk of the fund-raising database. Brand authenticity also has an indirect effect on support intentions through its influence on consumer-brand identification a mediator , which influences support intentions. Les White, a former county manager in San Jose, Calif. It emerged that several variables known to affect a levels of charity giving and b choices of types of charity supported among the U.
Because recent Sarbanes-Oxley-inspired state legislation merely supplements existing law, an understanding of the preexisting restrictions is crucial to evaluating the need for, and wisdom of, nonprofit reforms. Our argument is that, while resources of trust are linked to their core values, voluntary organisations are increasingly governed by formal measures designed to promote confidence. Generally, the whistleblower protection provision makes it a crime to retaliate against an employee who provides information about or assists in an investigation into corporate fraud. Some question whether shareholders, especially in large public corporations, truly have an effect on corporate managers. Further, many nonprofits rely on fee-based services, not donations, and thus operate more like businesses than charities.
We also found the age and gender profiles of the donor base of charity brands to be highly similar, suggesting they appeal to the same type of customers. Prior to Sarbanes-Oxley and related state initiatives, nonprofits were governed by a hodgepodge of federal and state laws and regulations. Finally, Part V sug- gests that legislative efforts to reform nonprofit governance should move away from Sarbanes-Oxley-inspired provisions and focus instead on two low-cost remedies: 1 granting limited standing to donors to pursue claims against nonprofit wrongdoers, and 2 increasing the information available to donors. In addition to media coverage, donors who wish to investigate charities before giving have several available resources. Both indirect benefits and Kantian motives are implied by this study. Altruistic people need to be targeted with an appropriate advertisement message.
Marketing concepts such as corporate identity, image, and branding are important strategies for nonprofit organizations. This paper presents evidence on estate division among children by sex, birth order, family size, estate size, and asset composition. Whether motivated by a genuine concern for the public good or for more selfish reasons such as personal satisfaction or a tax deduction, donors do not expect a direct personal return on their investment. Enfin, les implications organisationnelles et éthiques de la collecte de legs sont identifiées. Instead of blindly adopting Sarbanes- Oxley provisions, legislators should think creatively to craft reform solutions for the nonprofit sector.
The author would like to thank Professor Troy Paredes for comments on earlier drafts of this Note and the members of The Georgetown Law Journal, especially Jessica Hayden, Shu-Ping Shen, and Annie Christoff for their suggestions and edits. While charitable behaviour in general is driven by altruistic attitudes and political and religious values, as well as social reputation, these factors do not affect charitable bequest making as expected. Following the enactment of Sarbanes-Oxley to address for-profit corporate fraud, lawmakers and nonprofit leaders across the country scrambled to address similar issues in the nonprofit world. § 501 c 3 2000. Costs on Affected Entities Sarbanes-Oxley compliance imposes a sizable burden on affected for-profit entities, especially smaller companies;129 however, for-profits are better able to adapt and absorb compliance costs than nonprofits. Gallagher headed a task force to address double counting, which suggests that the United Way had concerns about how widespread the practice might be.
See Oxholm, supra note 10, at 358; see also Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 § 302 a , 15 U. A number of specific propositions are developed from the literature to assist in this goal. A series of practical fund raising recommendations are offered to facilitate giving. We examine the meaning that such donors ascribe to their giving and the rich pattern of utility it offers both the individual and those he or she will ultimately leave behind. See Make Sure that Your Donations Count, supra note 81 advising donors on how to investigate regional or new charities. In the for-profit sector, investors give money with the expectation that they will receive a direct return on their investments.
Because Sarbanes- Oxley-inspired auditing provisions impose increased costs and burdens on nonprofits without returning a substantial benefit, the California Act and similar efforts fail to address adequately the issue of fraud in the nonprofit sector. After Sarbanes-Oxley was enacted, several nonprofits voluntar- ily adopted its provisions, often on the advice of counsel or advisors. The study, utilizing a telephone survey, applies brand equity for the first time to the nonprofit sector and provides initial empirical evidence of the multidimensional influence of brand personality, brand image, and brand awareness antecedents of the resource providers' biased decision to support the nonprofit organization after controlling for the influence of altruistic volunteerism. Issues Facing the New United Way -- Ch. The authors conclude that fundraisers looking to increase legacy income should target their older supporters, particularly those in their mid to late 60s', as well as users of their services. A model of charitable bequests is estimated on data from the 1957—1959 Treasury Special Study and the 1969 Estate Tax returns.