Model one considers the duration and intensity of vowels in individual words, rather than abstract, underlying phonemes. Against this backdrop, this article pursues two objectives. Traugott 2005 and Cambridge University Press, 2010. This money will go to help keep the List running by supporting all of our Student Editors for the coming year. En tout cas, originally used as a manner adverbial, was first conventionalized as a reformulative connector before coming to be used as a sequencing device.
Despite the apparent difficulties in pinning down a systematic one-to-one relationship between ambiguity and reanalysis, I will propose a unified usage-based account for the various types of reanalyses discussed in this paper. This study traces the evolution in Medieval French of two competing n-words with temporal meaning, onques and jamais, both of which are most appropriately translated into English as never. The notion of argument inheritance captures the intuition that both aspects seem to obey the same syntactic regularities. By contrast, pre-position as in the case of comme is an exceptional feature for causals and is usually ascribed to the requirements of discourse organization. Der Begriff der Argumentvererbung gibt die Intuition wieder, dass beide Aspekte der Nominalisierung denselben syntaktischen Regelmäßigkeiten folgen.
Syntactic change from within and from without syntax: A usage-based analysis by Waltereit, Richard ; 3. Eine besondere Rolle spielt in diesem Zusammenhang das so genannte Tätigkeits-Modell Schwarze 1995. However, despite the massive effects produced by string frequency, the prosodic, distributional and discourse-pragmatic data presented here do not support the view that the prosodically weakened variants of moi instantiate a construction that is distinct from non-clitic moi. On explaining the rise of c'est-clefts in French by Dufter, Andreas ; 4. In nine case studies, a number of renowned scholars of Romance linguistics address the explanation of grammatical change either within a broadly generative or a functional framework. As I will argue, this change is not an instance of grammaticalization as captured by Lehmann's 2002 parameter model, but is more adequately conceived of as lexical constructionalization.
It it argued that grammaticalization is a relatively specific and homogeneous type of change distinct from other types of change, including reanalysis and pragmaticalization. Nominalizáló szerepe annyira kiterjedt és sokrétű, hogy feltehetőleg analógiásan olyan helyekre is behatol, ahol szintaktikalag nem lenne szükséges. Along the way Lightfoot examines consequences of the loss of the rich Old English case system and of the breakdown of the verb classes and takes up particularly illuminating cases of obsolescent structures. This paper deals with the question of how and why resultative constructions change into anteriors. Section 3 is an excursus about argument structure of nouns and adjectives. The role of the plural system in Romance by Stark, Elisabeth ; 5. Probably due to its extensive nominalizing function, it tends to appear in constructions in which its presence is not necessary from a syntactic point of view.
The second aim of the study is to address the puzzle of n-words in Modern French. Com base na perspectiva da gramaticalizacao de construcoes t raugott , 2008; n oel , 2007 , este artigo trata dos padroes de uso da expressao sei la verificados em textos falados por estudantes brasileiros: como modalizador e como marcador discursivo. In this paper, I discuss critically the traditional view of reanalysis, taking into account recen. This book examines the contribution of various recent developments in linguistics to contrastive analysis. It is argued that because individual n-words can be shown to have developed in significantly different ways, their diachronic sources and trajectories must be taken into account when explaining their synchronic behaviour. Investigo, neste artigo, construções parentéticas epistêmicas originadas de um esquema construcional formado por oração matriz com predicador adjetival e oração encaixada em posição argumental de sujeito. One of the aims of the present paper is to propose an account of this change.
The articles range across a broad gamut of languages, with most attention going to the languages of Europe. Towards a comprehensive view of language change: Three recent evolutionary approaches by Winter-Froemel, Esme ; 11. Tuttavia, la più importante peculiarità dell'insegnamento e dell'apprendimento delle lingue in Gran Bretagna è da ricondurre principalmente al ruolo particolare che occupa l'inglese nel contesto delle lingue. By the same token, code ambiguity can, but need not, be a consequence of reanalysis. Based on an overview of examples from lexical, morphological and syntactic change I will show that reanalysis can, but need not, be triggered by code ambiguity or pragmatic underdetermination. Unlike the subject clitics of Modern French je, tu, il, etc.
The basic problem for anyapproach to language change is what Eugenio Coseriu has termed the paradox of change: if synchronically, languages can be viewed asperfectly running systems, then there is no reason why they should changein the first place. The metonymy-based account proposed in this paper provides simple explanations for a wide range of problems concerning morphological as well as syntactic aspects of nominalization. These donations can be offset against your federal and sometimes your state tax return U. What is the role of pragmatics in the evolution of grammatical paradigms? The nominalizer in question exhibits mixed features from a morphological point of view, it cannot be classified either as a typical derivational or a typical inflexional suffix. The absence of pragmatic contribution should lead the marker to take on the role of default, which is already fulfilled by a well-established ne … pas, pushing non into decline. I then illustrate this distinction using the history of the French est-ce que question as a case study. The discourse marker en tout cas 'in any case', 'anyway' is used in modern French both as a refor.
By doing so, puisque conveys an act of refutation directed against the immediately preceding utterance. Subject Index Series Title: , Series 4, Current issues in linguistic theory ;, 293. Many companies also offer a gift matching program, such that they will match any gift you make to a non-profit organization. This article presents a critical discussion of Inertia Theory Longobardi 2001; 2003 , according to which syntactic change never originates in syntax itself. Moreover, all reanalyses are usually controlled by one of two possible principles: the Principle of Relevant Usage Effect and the Transparency Principle. It will be shown that the emergence of main-clause-initial puisque was brought about by a pragmatically motivated reanalysis whereby a frequent usage-effect was conventionalized as the construction's new meaning.
In the literature, such mismatches between the semantics of a given construction and the meaning of its lexical filler have been claimed to normally trigger coercion, i. Section 5 addresses argument alternations. However, in spite of being eligible for abtönung, main-clause-initial puisque is basically a discourse marker rather than a modal particle; as we will show, its usage depends heavily on the sequential ordering of the discourse, whereas constraints of this kind play no role for modal particles. How status changes are effected, however, has still to be documented. It signals that the information introduced by it should be known to the addressee. Morphological developments affecting syntactic change by Goldbach, Maria ; 6.
This paper deals with the question of how and why resultative constructions change into anteriors. This is remarkable since decir 'to tell' is a non-transitional verb; te lo tengo dicho thus violates the requirement that resultatives should only combine with transitional verbs. Imperfect systems and diachronic change by Salvi, Giampaolo ; 8. I offer a possible explanation of that potential confusion. With an accuracy of over 90%, the model predicts the order and timing of changes in verbal and nominal endings where vowel reduction is involved.