The origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol. Download [PDF] The Origins Of The Lebanese National Idea 1840 1914 Free Online 2019-02-25

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The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

Hakim reconstructs the complex process that led to the appearance of fluid national ideals among members of the clerical and secular Lebanese elite, and follows the fluctuations and variations of these ideals up until the establishment of a Lebanese state. While it is difficult to ascertain with precision and certainty the meaning and prevalence of communal identities among the various religious groups in the Mountain by the beginning of the nineteenth century, the differing religious communities appeared to carry some sense of communal distinctiveness tempered by shared worldviews, customs, and interests that cut across sectarian divides. The book is an essential read for anyone interested in the evolution of nationalism in the Middle East and beyond. Chapters by eminent scholars from within and outside of the region offer a comprehensive study of individual Syrian writers and activists caught in a whirlwind of uncertainty, competing ideologies, foreign interference, and political suppression. The Emergence of the Lebanist Ideal One of first to capitalize on these kind of ideas was the Maronite Patriarch himself, Mgr Yusuf Hubaysh, who soon after the demise of Emir Bashir communicated to the Ottoman government a petition followed by a full-fledged plan for a Maronite Emirate on behalf of the Maronite community.

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The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea by Carol Hakim

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

It was during such a troubled period, stretching from 1840 to 1860 and marked by social, political, and communal strife in Mount Lebanon, that projects advocating the establishment in Mount Lebanon of a semi-independent entity, ruled by a indigenous Maronite governor, made their first appearance. She argues that while some of the ideas and historical myths at the core of Lebanese nationalism appeared by the mid-nineteenth century, a coherent popular nationalist ideology and movement emerged only with the establishment of the Lebanese state in 1920. He also sent a special political envoy to Istanbul, Abbot Nicolas Murad, and relied extensively on French diplomatic support in the Ottoman capital. Notable families were not necessarily bound to their followers by kinship ties but were commonly linked to their followers in the regions under their control by economic and political ties. Their demands for self-definition as a nation and their desire to establish their own culture were rooted in the concept of their ancient Phoenician past. In doing so, they transformed this diaspora into an epicenter for Arab nationalist politics.

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The Origins Of The Lebanese National Idea

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

From these diasporic communities, Syrians used their ethnic associations, commercial networks, and global press to oppose Ottoman rule, collaborating with the Entente powers because they believed this war work would bolster the cause of Syria's liberation. This chapter and the next one reconstruct the intricate circumstances that spawned the first appearance of elementary nationalist ideas and schemes among some clerical Maronite circles. Its parochial organizational structure, scarce resources, and dependence on Maronite secular authority limited its influence and its ability to meet the spiritual needs of its community. These projects, which marked the earliest signs of the emergence of Lebanism, came about as the result of a specific and intricate conjuncture when internal factors intersected with foreign influence and interference. It is difficult to gauge the real impact of these foreign exhortations on the population or their elementary importance in the appearance of emancipative inclinations among some Lebanese circles.

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The origins of the Lebanese national idea, 1840

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

Hence, family lineages, village coalitions, notables' client networks of peasants and followers, and confederations of notables formed the building blocks and dividing lines of political coalitions. Tax rates thus began to rise, intensifying the pressure on the local population. Kaufman investigates the crucial place Phoenicianism occupied in the formation of Greater Lebanon in 1920. Hakim reconstructs the complex process that led to the appearance of fluid national ideals among members of the clerical and secular Lebanese elite, and follows the fluctuations and variations of these ideals up until the establishment of a Lebanese state. She argues that while some of the ideas and historical myths at the core of Lebanese nationalism appeared by the mid-nineteenth century, a coherent popular nationalist ideology and movement emerged only with the establishment of the Lebanese state in 1920. The Maronites, who had up until then constituted a second-rank community in the Emirate, witnessed an unexpected improvement of their condition.

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The Origins Of The Lebanese National Idea

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

This book focuses on the development of the Phoenician-Lebanese movement that struggled against the hegemonic status of Arabic language and culture. She argues that while some of the ideas and historical myths at the core of Lebanese nationalism appeared by the mid-nineteenth century, a coherent popular nationalist ideology and movement emerged only with the establishment of the Lebanese state in 1920. Until the beginning of the nineteenth century, the scholastic works of the Church remained remote from the concerns of commoners and notables. The emergence and institutionalization of such cultural and juridical expressions of difference were directly influenced by and, in turn, have inflected the character of colonialism, nationalism, and sectarianism in twentieth century Lebanon. The price may be the seller's own price elsewhere or another seller's price.

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The Origins Of The Lebanese National Idea

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

When the rebels failed to obtain satisfaction from the Egyptian authorities, they readily accepted the helping hand of the Ottomans and their European allies who promised to alleviate their grievances under a restored Ottoman administration. It led him thereafter to pursue a more elitist policy, relying more on behind-the-scene diplomatic and political channels to reach his aims than trusting the aptitude of his community. No attempt is made here to retrace the chronology of this period. Consequently, it becomes historically accurate and necessary to speak of Lebanese sectarianisms in the plural. Furthermore, the attempt to mobilize the Maronites prompted, in reaction, Druze commoners to rally around their traditional leaders, thus forming an internal front lobbying against the Patriarch's plans and an internal danger to his community. Those who remained did not enjoy a more enviable lot. Trying hard to conciliate the contradictory terms of French policy in the Levant, at the time divided between its traditional protectorate over the Catholics, which he deemed greatly endangered by a French stand opposed to the Maronite rebellion against Egyptian rule, and the French government's decision to safeguard the Egyptian hold over Syria, Bourrée came up with a proposal that he conveyed to Paris.

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Origins of the Lebanese National Idea by Carol Hakim

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

At the same time, the aspirations of the Maronite clergy converged with the romantic fantasies of some French Catholic and liberal circles who envisioned the establishment of an independent Christian entity in the Levant under the aegis of France, with a view to regenerating the declining Orient, emancipating the Christians of the east from Muslim domination, and upholding French interests in Syria. Hence, public and collective religious rituals and practices, as well as particular communal social and moral norms, contributed to impart some sense of communal identity to the members of the various communities. Asher Kaufman demonstrates the role played by the lay, liberal Syrian-Lebanese who resided in Beirut, Alexandria and America towards the end of the nineteenth century in the birth and dissemination of this myth. Their performance discredited the Patriarch's attempt to establish a firm Maronite political front backing his political program. Eventually, the influence of the Roman See, as well as changing circumstances within the Church and the wider community, converged in the eighteenth century to generate momentum in favor of the reformation of the Maronite Church.

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PDF⋙ The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

Asher Kaufman demonstrates the role played by the lay, liberal Syrian-Lebanese who resided in Beirut, Alexandria and America towards the end of the 19th century in the birth and dissemination of this myth. In the segmented political system that had prevailed until then the Maronites of the northern, central, and southern districts had had different historical and political experiences and were included in separate client networks. These included social dislocations and transformations following the integration of the Ottoman Empire in the world economy, which intensified tensions between notables and commoners and disrupted the political balance between the various communities. All of those possibilities will not happen with you if you take The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920 as your daily resource information. The works treated are: Huda Barakat's Hajar al-dahik, Najwa Barakat's Hayat wa-alam Hamad ibn Silana, and Andree Chedid's La femme de Job. The formal investiture of the Emir by the Ottoman walis had to be renewed on an annual basis, and his tenure was never secure. Finally, Reviving Phoenicia provides an overview of Phoenicianism from independence in 1943 to the present, demonstrating that despite the general objection to this myth, some aspects of it entered mainstream Lebanese national narratives.

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Carol Hakim: The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea (ePUB)

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

Hakim s study reconsiders conventional accounts that locate the origins of Lebanese nationalism in a distant legendary past and then trace its evolution in a linear and gradual manner. To thwart their ambitions, he struck at the root of their power by challenging their political and judicial rights over their Christian tenants. She argues that while some of the ideas and historical myths at the core of Lebanese nationalism appeared by the mid-nineteenth century, a coherent popular nationalist ideology and movement emerged only with the establishment of the Lebanese state in 1920. Hakim reconstructs the complex process that led to the appearance of fluid national ideals among members of the clerical and secular Lebanese elite, and follows the fluctuations and variations of these ideals up until the establishment of a Lebanese state. Author by : Asher Kaufman Language : en Publisher by : I. Instead, it dallied at Baabda arguing over leadership and organizational issues and finally attacked the neighboring Druze village of Shuwayfat before disbanding.

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The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea by Carol Hakim

the origins of the lebanese national idea hakim carol

The book is an essential read for anyone interested in the evolution of nationalism in the Middle East and beyond. With this book you will learn to define a simple regression problem and evaluate its performance. These idealized historical constructions were meant to support specific political plans and programs. Or just seeking the The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920 when you essential it?. However, contrary to the idealized picture of the Emirate presented retrospectively by local historians by the mid-nineteenth century, the local system developed by the notables in the Mountain did not evolve into an orderly and stable formal dynastic principality.

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