Responsibility: Waniss Otman, Erling Karlberg. By showing that congressional intervention should not be underestimated, this article claims that the Argentine presidential regime is better characterised as one of limited centralism than as an example of hyper-presidentialism. The article concludes that volatility continues to be the crucial characteristic of Libya's foreign policy. In 1991, this coalition disintegrated as a result of a reordering of economic institutions. Privatization in Libya — Quo Vadis?. For answering this central research problem-research questions that have been formulated: 1. Libya as a Food Importer.
By looking through the lens of the privatisation case-study, the article aims to analyse the institutional capacity of Argentine democratic presidents to enact policy reforms. Recently, after a more than three decades of excessive reliance on the public sector, Libya has pursued privatization of its public sector. Initially, however, Article 34 of the 1969 constitution stated that all old laws remained in effect, except for those which contravened the new constitution. In order to look at relatively recent privatisation experiences which are completed so that pre- and post-privatisation comparisons can be made ; I focus on the first stage of the last wave of privatisation. This process provides an opportunity to study how privatisation, competition, and regulation are related.
The study aims to study and identify the contribution of renewable energy in the mixture of total energy supply in Libya. However, these powers were eliminated in the final version of the law, in what historian Dirk Vandewalle described as a rare example of the national interest overriding that of the provinces. A questionnaire survey was administered to companies in the Libyan petroleum industry. Impact of Social Trends on Economic Reform. At a Tripoli gas station on a recent afternoon, popular opinion among local Libyans appears to be that the government would keep the prices low, around 60 cents a gallon, or bring them down even further. It was also widely believed that market institutions could be built after the private ownership was created. There is no doubt that the West has benefited from the success of the Libyan petroleum industry, but in the process, Libya too improved its industry, commerce and agriculture, and also its legal framework.
This signifies an average annual growth of 7-13%. Libya and the Barcelona Process. It can be expected that this will generate additional insight into the privatisation process in Libya and increase the possibility of generalising the findings. This viewpoint has been supported by Otman and Karlberg 2007 in their discussion of the economic diversification and the international positioning of Libya. Based on the research findings, several conclusions can be drawn and recommendations can be made.
Water Desalinization and Its Environmental Impacts. Key Indicators Related to Fishing Industry. However, throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, Gaddafi repeatedly emphasised in speeches that Islamic law was an insufficient basis for modern economic and social relations, and that the traditional Islamic guidelines for property and commerce had no legal standing. The Libyan government will have to be more aggressive targets to promotion of renewable energy to achieve environmental sustainability in Libya. Intraclass correlations for scaled items were high, and there were no differences in answers to nominal items between the first and second completions of the questionnaire.
Exclusions not Covered in Previous Legislation. The paper concludes that the analysis provides new and clear empirical evidence in support of the perceived positive impact of a port devolution policy in Libya. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the role and the contribution of the population growth as the main factor behind the rapid urbanization in northern African region and Libya in particular among other factors in the urban planning and development context. This means that privatisation in Libya includes the need for creating an environment conducive to the development of the private sector. Libya Trade Potential with the Maghreb Arab Union.
This may not be the case in Libya, although international observers have previously considered Saif al-Islam Qadhafi, to be more inclined toward both economic and political liberalisation if the regime survives St. These case studies are placed in the wider context of law, governance, insecurity, and the practice of international rule of law promoters in Libya. It focuses on several specific concerns, such as doubts about home ownership, the practice of the legal aid service, and interpretations of the shari'a. This book delivers a thorough and essential analysis of current economic policy, transformation and legislative changes in Libya. Although, the managers had more decision-making authority, and employees received salary increases, the managers were not prepared to deal with the new realities, many employees lost their job, many employees had a much less secure future than before privatisation because of the introduction of annual contracts. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a global movement away from state ownership towards private ownership of companies. European laws were imported and applied in fields where sharia law was less developed, namely commercial law, procedural law, and penal law.
Thereby, they answer many questions about Libya's distinctive society and economic system and explain the necessity for the major restructuring of the Libyan economy which is currently in process. By ranking stakeholder priorities and preferences, more than one scenario for future port governance emerges. To interpret the recent privatisation process in Libya, it is necessary to have an overview of the historical reform programs of the country. Despite the focus on direct effects only, the results indicate that subsidy reforms would have a major impact on household welfare and government revenues. The study used qualitative methods and was conducted in three sites. But as any number of governments from Indonesia to Iran to Egypt have found, weaning a population off a subsidy-heavy lifestyle is easier said than done. Other transferor nationalities included Canadian, French, Spanish, Korean, and Irish, to name a few Table 3.
The Libyan Foreign Investment Board. The Libyan Tourist Sector, 8. Framework and Evolution of Key Legislation. Foundations of the Libyan Legal System. This research contributes to the recent debate on privatisation and its prerequisite restructuring. The first characterisation not only acknowledges the complexity of the institutional relations, but also the fact that, given a situation of presidential centralism, institutional relations are variable and, most importantly, contingent upon political conditions. Islamic influence remained in some areas of commercial law too, however; Libya was the first country adopting the Sanhuri code to prohibit usury.
An important aspect of this trend has been the privatisation of State-owned enterprises with the goal of improving their in general unsatisfactory performance. The book makes extensive use of previously unavailable economic and social data and thus allows a unique insight into a fascinating country on its way to reposition itself in a regional and international context. In developing countries, urbanization has increased as populations have grown and move from rural areas to cities, regional and national policies are also concentrated on urban areas. In addition, it has been found that energy demand is increasing in Libya and that renewable energy could be the solution to cover some of this demand. Early Attempts at Privatization in Libya. Based on the literature review and secondary data, it is evident, despite the recent political changes in Libya that renewable energy is still strategically of high importance.