Sherman and Smith 1984 suggested that the structural characteristics of the organization may constitute one possible explanation. All the major 234 L. The chapter is organized as follows. We suggest that there is a clear gap in the literature in better understanding how to govern the development of information infrastructures using a bottom-up approach. The second theoretical development with implications for collaboration is derived from research on the nature of knowledge and information.
National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, New York, Oxford University Press, pp. Originally the major focus in analyses of high-tech industries concentrated on the physical output hardware. The analysis in this chapter will, however, not be concerned very much with this dynamic relationship between the two variables. In Meusburger P, Schuch T eds Wissenschaftsatlas of Heidelberg University. Bio:1-2: Survey of Biotechnology Use — 1996; Biotechnology Firm Survey — 1997.
A total of 20,499 different organizations from 50 countries participated at least once in these projects. The transfer of knowledge takes place within a network of various organizations of different nature, size and role. The authors wish to thank Aldo Geuna, Bart Verspagen, Nicholas Vonortas and all participants at the meeting for useful comments. Soete 2004 argues that it is the process of Knowledge and Information Enlightment that is one of the main drivers of a new structural transformation, already in progress, of both the economy and society. Ambas son importantes para explicar la economía sinaloense, cuya estructura es deficitaria en sus relaciones con el exterior. In this respect, the target and nature of the European consortia appear to be relevant explanatory factors.
In addition, access to internal and external sources of knowledge is argued to be of vital importance and, consequently, the notion of absorptive capacity at the micro level is stressed. In particular, we will try to explain which form of cooperation promises to be especially successful in order to enhance the competitiveness both of the individual members as well as the overall inter-firm network. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2003. Στην εργασία αξιοποιούνται τα αποτελέσματα ποσοτικής έρευνας, σε δείγμα 800 επιχειρήσεων, για τη χρήση των τεχνολογιών πληροφορικής και επικοινωνιών σε 10 κλάδους της ελληνικής οικονομίας και των επιπτώσεων που αυτή έχει στην καινοτομία και την παραγωγικότητα των ελληνικών επιχειρήσεων. Access information about new market trends. In particular, scholars of the economics of technical change identify diversity in the ways economic agents interact as both a cause and an effect of the enlargement of their knowledge base and increased competencies leading to the creation of novelty. Self-organization of networks could only strengthen this feature and imply risks of lock in.
In Meusburger P, Glückler J, El Meskioui M eds Knowledge and the Economy. In Martin R ed Economy. Spatio-temporal relations of academic knowledge production. Although the design of the questionnaire allowed the collection of data from non-innovators as well, their share in the returned responses turned out to be disproportionately low. In Meusburger P, Livingstone D N, Jöns H eds Geographies of Science. Parent company engages in partnerships; unnecessary for interviewed company. Wie kann die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Unternehmen gestärkt werden? Access specialized instruments and facilities.
These centres are usually located at research institutes with the relevant expertise. This was evidently not the case in Denmark. Ökonomische Beziehungen in räumlicher Perspektive: 3. In order to construct the spillover stocks, different dimensions are considered: geographic and technological. Traducida al español por el Instituto de Traducción e Interpretación bajo la dirección del Prof. However, mobile phone equipment has continued to be an area of specialization in Denmark as can be seen from Table 7. The work is organized as follows.
In the presence of missing values, the rectangular form can be restored either by discarding incomplete cases or imputing values in place of the missing ones. Funding is awarded on the basis of evaluation by a group of independent experts of written proposals from the applicants. But they are not large companies and they have basically become dominated by foreign multinationals. Many of the widely-available input and output indicators are proxy measures of knowledge flows because they give evidence of communications among individuals, firms and institutions during the innovation process Leydersdorff and Scharnhorst 2003 , but only a few indicators directly count or measure knowledge flows. Finally, a pure collaborative relationship seems to be very competitive, but also vulnerable to internal changes. In Glückler J, Suddaby R, Lenz R eds Knowledge and Institutions.
Consultants were important for: — Providing information for new market trends and consumer needs. Once again, the distribution of degrees looks slightly different under the two hypotheses used here to construct the network see top part of Figure 12. These are indirect measures of the extent and magnitude of knowledge transactions among national economies. Ein Forschungsprojekt an der Universität Heidelberg. Denmark could learn much from its neighbour, Sweden. If the indicator is above 1. As noted above, this is largely because of the number of questions that are required, which means that this is only feasible for specialized surveys.
These methods make use either of quantitative information on the cross-sectoral use of patents or other specialized databases such as input—output tables and bilateral trade data. Electro-medical equipment also shown in Figure 7. In Meusburger P, Schuch T eds Wissenschaftsatlas der Universität Heidelberg. This is unfortunate, because a better understanding of the type of information that is obtained could be of value to policy. The interview structure was guided by the results of a mail survey conducted approximately six months earlier. This chapter does not deal with the organizational design decision and the changing nature of structures. The small world phenomenon is found at the limited range say between 0.
A channel is understood as the means by which knowledge is transferred. So entstanden Formen des wirtschaftlichen Austauschs, die weder durch Preiswettbewerb noch durch Unternehmenshierarchien koordiniert werden. The three main drawbacks to the type of data collected by innovation surveys summarized in Table 3. Attention is paid to the late focus by European institutions on networking centres of excellence. Finally, the collaborative organizational structure ran the risk that too few new relationships would be established.