Driving confers adult status and represents new opportunities for independence. The effects of group diffusion of cognitive effort on attitudes: An information-processing view. Furthermore, in many one-onone interactions such as doctor-patient and health educator—client , a stage-based approach would cost no more than a standardized approach and might receive a much better welcome. Both high- and low-needfor-cognition individuals became more favorable toward the position taken in the message, but what is critical is that they did so through different processes. The health promotion theorists in the new generation represented in this book are grounded in research and practice, more so than most of those in earlier gen- erations of social and behavioral science who brought their theories to public health.
The role of peripheral and central route cognitive processing in achiev-ing short-term and sustained behavior change, respectively, is described in detail. Procedure and Stage Assessment Study participants were initially contacted by telephone. Other variables differentiated among only some of the groups. Although tailoring strategies have generally been successful, little is known about why tailoring is an effective strategy. Beck and colleagues Beck et al. This observation clearlyimplies that theories may be used in a complementary form, therefore suggestingthe utility of creating new theory that represents potentially effective combina-tions of established theory.
The goal of the video was to convince people that they had a moderate to high chance of finding unhealthy radon levels in their own homes. Cognitive processing and the functional matching effect in persuasion: The mediating role of subjective perceptions of message quality. Given such a theory, a health educator approaching a new population or individual could identify the dominant stage or stages and focus available resources on those factors that are most important in moving people to the next stage. As compared to weak attitudes, strong attitudes are more durable because they persist over time and resist change when challenged by contrary information. What are you two going to do? Although this might suggest that we should try to change these factors instead, many of these behavioral determinants result from attitudes as well. Constantly reevaluating the explanatory and predictive capacity of theory allows the discipline of health promotion to grow and mature. Crosby is an assistant professor in the Department of Behavioral Sciencesand Health Education in the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 23—53. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 553—557. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1413—1426. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 76, 127—133. The interplay of affect and cognition in attitude formation and change. We conclude with an overview of the new and emerging theories that will follow in the remainder of the book.
Contemporary sociological theory: Continuing the classical condition 2nd ed. No thought rehearsal, ease of generation, and so on Yes Favorable Yes Unfavorable Central Central Positive Negative Attitude Attitude Change Change Changed attitude is relatively enduring, resistant to counterpersuasion, and predictive of behavior. Petty, Wheeler, and Bizer 2000 reviewed matching effects in a variety of social-psychological research traditions, including attitude function matching, self-schema matching, group identity matching, and affectcognition matching. The Precaution Adoption Process Model 33 Implications for Practice The results of the radon testing experiment are strong enough to have practical implications. That is, the positivity of cognitive responses can also be indicative of the direction and extent of message processing.
Recently, greater sophistication has been found in some school-based programs J. Detailed explanations ofcentral route and peripheral route cognitive processing are provided; these dualroutes of persuasion are important to health promotion practice because they canguide widespread health communication efforts. If this is a republication request please include details of the new work in which the Wiley content will appear. Argument strength can be determined by pretesting arguments on subsets of the target population. Certain of the variables differentiated among all the main groups. Processing of persuasive in-group messages.
For example, when the attitudes of many people change, social norms change as well. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 930—937. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 43—49. Kegler 8 Community Capacity: Concept, Theory, and Methods 194 Barbara L. These diseases are typically amenable to behavioral and social interventions. Thoughtful attitude changes are postulated to be more accessible to memory, persistent over time, resistant to counterpersuasive attempts, and predictive of behavior.
Two conditions are necessary for effortful processing to occur: the recipient of the message must be motivated and able to process it thoroughly. Journal of Community Mental Health, 33, 133—142. Theoretical approaches from a broad spectrum of disciplines have been used. Matching Under Low Elaboration Conditions. The role of mass media in public health. Thus, individuals in a given stage should respond better to an intervention that is matched to their stage than to one that is mismatched that is, matched to a different stage. Strong attitudes are more predictive of behavior, so thoughtful attitude change makes the initiation of exercise behavior more likely.
The health belief model and predictions of health actions. Although motorcycle safety gear use has been demonstrated to save hundreds of lives annu- The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model 59 Figure 3. One reason for this may be found in the observation that behavioral and social science theory has yet to reach a pinnacle of utility. No one said they had never heard of a mammogram Stage 1. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 353—361.
The standard-of-care control condition did not receive any of the experimental interventions. Is there one persuasion process or more? American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 576—585. An example may help make this claim clearer. This brief description of a trajectory of theory development suggests that the range of theories available to behavioral and social scientists is rapidly expanding. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th ed. Such theories do not, however, acknowledge changes in the barriers that people must overcome to progress toward action.