M u c h like the system of r e w a r d and punishment associated w i t h boys' a n d girls' compliance to traditional gender roles, an academic system based o n gender difference w a s used to construct a n d maintain a system of unequal scholarship relations see Shirvani et a l. I n Britain, where black models were used, they tended to appear i n advertisements for clothes, not beauty products. M o t h e r s were beginning to ask to be noticed, even if the sound-level had barely risen above a whisper. London and Thousand Oaks: Sage. H e h a d initiated this in the Daily Mail i n 1896, and by 1909 w a s w a r n i n g its editor, M a r l o w e , to ensure the continuing femininity of the magazine page, intensified from the Daily Express as competition for w o m e n readers L e M a h i e u 1988, p. Page T h r e e w a s launched as an image of defiant liberation.
She w a s to be seen, as the caption instructed us, as 'gorgeous, sexy, young'. To what extent do portrayals of gender influence everyday perceptions of ourselves and our actions? Readers were n o w to be pampered and 'tickled' rather than challenged or patronized. H o w e v e r , between the very broad, general conditions a n d power relations in the world a n d the ideological messages w h i c h shape media texts that are delivered to audiences is a n important system of production. John Fiske 1987: 308 has made a similar point about television news, referring to it as a 'masculine soap opera'. A s she makes her final exit from the office, her triumph is momentarily undercut as a close-up focuses on her heel trapped in a grid i n the floor. T u r n i n g to soap opera audiences, M a r y E l l e n B r o w n demonstrates m ihapter 15 that w o m e n ' s knowledge of this television genre c a n form the basis of female support networks through w h i c h such knowledge is legitimated and where w o m e n are empowered to resist its often constrictive messages about femininity. Beynon 2002: 11 This introductory essay maps out w h a t w e believe to be the most important and relevant conceptual concerns around gender i n the fields of media a n d cultural studies today.
T h e Advertising Standards Authority, responsible in Britain for all advertisements other than broadcast ones, w a s unimpressed by feminist complaints in the 1970s. I a m extremely grateful, as a l w a y s , to Stuart and Geoffrey for their love and support throughout. F o r social movements trying to create alternative media, certain technical, technological a n d socio-economic factors also l o o m large. D a v i d M o r l e y ' s research o n household media consumption patterns involved detailed interviews w i t h 2 0 families in southeast E n g l a n d a n d observations of their media use i n their homes. T h i s research, humorously entitled Adman and Eve, compared w o m e n ' s reactions to four 'traditional' a n d four ' m o d e r n ' advertisements for the same products. A n advertisement for W i n c a r n i s tonic stressed that a relaxed a n d stress-free atmosphere in the home w a s the w o m a n ' s responsibility.
In Britain, Alfred H a r m s w o r t h later L o r d Northcliffe w a s the first to capitalize o n the attraction of w o m e n to advertisers. London and New York: Methuen. T u r n i n g then to the Reader's contents, essays i n Part I explore the very narrow w a y s in w h i c h femininity typically has been represented i n m a i n stream media texts. Likewise, it is important to keep i n m i n d that such socialization continues lo have real, negative material economic, social, political effects o n the life chances of girls as well as boys as they grow up Mattelart 1 9 8 6. E a c h of the books is intended to provide a lively, innovative a n d comprehensive introduction to a specific topical issue from a fresh perspective. N o similar reconstruction has been carried out on w o m e n ' s domestic role, cast too ail-inclusively as the infection that stops the w o u n d of male oppression from healing. In what ways do the media reinforce and sometimes challenge gender inequalities? E a r l y researchers during the 1960s and 1970s examined media content in order to provide quantitative proof that the media typically rely on a stock of stereotypical images of w o m e n.
Embedded in these examinations are further discussions of the subordination of women, of the systemic exclusion of women from historical or current discourses, of unsubstantiated gendered assumptions, negative stereotyping of Aframericans and Latinas, and more. I n addition, soaps emphasize dialogue, problem solving, intimate conversation and domestic settings. W i t h respect to U S media, the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the I Iniversity of Pennsylvania reported in 2 0 0 2 that men continue to dominate key decision-making positions. She is editor of Critical Studies in Media Communication , serves on six journal editorial boards, and has written 30 journal articles and book chapters on feminist media, mediaethics, and journalism history. A similar point w a s made by British journalist M a r y Stott, commenting o n television quiz s h o w s ' readiness to include questions o n male hobbies such as sports or w o o d w o r k , but not o n women-related domestic crafts such as embroidery or baking Guardian, The 9 January 1992. We w o u l d argue that i n most cases, as the next section o n gendered audiences s h o w s , understanding h o w the media operate, and w h y , a n d h o w they produce certain content c a n enormously enhance one's pleasure a n d appreciation of specific media genres. Such investigations s h o w us h o w constructed these preferences are in the name of audience differentiation, niche marketing and so on.
H o b s o n discovered that these 3 young mothers tended to prefer those media genres related to a ' w o m a n ' s w o r l d '. About this Item: Open University Press, 2003. Gender, a l w a y s socially constituted, continues to be ruled by conventions, albeit in d y n a m i c processes a n d expectations that have changed over the years. Allan eds News, Gender and Power. Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. T h i s insight led to a n explosion of feminist research across academic disciplines a n d has been a central feature of media studies research for over thirty years n o w. O n e an advertisement for shoes depicts a w o m a n metaphorically castrating her boss: the other for a bra creates a micro-narrative around female vengeance classically produced by jealousy over a m a n.
I n light of the remarkable speed at w h i c h the conceptual agendas of cultural a n d media studies are changing, the series is committed to contributing to w h a t is a n ongoing process of reevaluation and critique. Research findings from the 1970s and 1980s m a y no longer be relevant to w h a t is happening today, including those from important studies w h i c h have been enormously influential in shaping the research agenda of media a n d cultural studies research. Critical Readings in Bodybuilding is the first collection to address the contemporary practice of bodybuilding, especially the way in which the activity has become increasingly more extreme and to consider much neglected debates of gender, eroticism, and sexuality related to the activity. O f course, w i t h the development and circulation of each of these new technologies, issues around gender access and participation have been at the forefront. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. By blending harmoniously w i t h the environment and discourse of the new magazines, advertising also benefited from the intimacy and trust that these publications established w i t h their readers. F o r Italian political theorist A n t o n i o G r a m s c i 1971 , the notion of hegemony provides a n explanation of h o w and w h y 'dominant' classes i n society have to constantly renegotiate their powerful positions in relations to the 'subjugated' classes.
I n recent years, w o m e n ' s fantasies played out in advertising mini-narratives, and indeed in the longer narratives of films such as Thelma and Louise, have incorporated more active revenge themes. Topics include: Gender identity and television talk showsHistorical portrayals of women in advertisingThe sexualization of the popular pressThe representation of lesbians on televisionThe cult of femininity in women's magazinesImages of African American women and Latinas in Hollywood cinemaSexual violence in the mediaWomen in popular musicPornography and masculine powerWomen's relationship to the Internet. Analyses and critiques of media forms, institutions a n d production practices need to be very carefully constructed to s h o w h o w media discourses contribute to, or conversely, challenge the structural re production of gender inequalities. T h i s new version of consumerism, claiming feminist credentials, undoubtedly strengthened m a n y w o m e n ' s perception that feminism w a s an essentially middle-class movement. Although advertising h a d not yet caught up w i t h the notion of the ' s u p e r w o m a n ' identified i n Shirley C o n r a n ' s book of that title i n 1 9 7 5 , it h a d begun to extend the repertoire of feminine subjectivities likely to encourage consumption. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, I n c. Conclusion In explaining the extent to w h i c h the media contribute to the perpetuation of hierarchical forms of gender difference, m a n y scholars are increasingly attentive to the interlocking interests of t w o ideological systems: capitalism and patriarchy.