This article examines how Syrian refugees in Belgium deal with a sudden loss of social status, by analysing how they draw symbolic boundaries among themselves, established immigrants and native Belgians. Finally, the article outlines the themes arising from the contributions in the Special Issue. However, during the period of the research, a new approach to migration management, focused on international labour flows under conditions of globalisation, increasingly influenced policy changes. Like elsewhere in Europe, the increased number of asylum applications dominated Flemish media and political debate during the summer and autumn of 2015, and asylum has remained on the political agenda ever since. One of the most pressing issues in immigration studies is which protections should be extended to irregular or undocumented immigrants. We then introduce the individual contributions to the volume, and explain how they are grouped.
These have all received particular scholarly attention in recent years: destitution, illegal working and forced labour, and the impact on integration outcomes. Yuxtaponemos la participación del gobierno del Reino Unido en la crisis de refugiados con su 'tradición humanitaria' en la que el Reino Unido se ha idealizado como un santuario para los que han escapado la persecución, la tortura o el conflicto. Yet while normative scholarship has conceptualized post-nationalism as an ongoing practice of discursive contestation over the role of national group membership in liberal democratic societies, more empirical studies have tended to overlook these features to predominantly focus instead on top-down legal and political institution-building as evidence of post-nationalism. The alternative, a 'cosmopolitan outlook', is a contested term and project. Subsequent sections take this forward by examining a series of themes including: the relationship between the individual and the social; the need to address inequality; the challenge of social engagement and activism; and the development of interdisciplinarity.
Asylum Immigration and the Art of Government 3. Humanitarian concerns have also been present in both discourse and policy, but have not been able to counter the dominant construction of the 'refugee crisis' as a cultural, security and economic threat and crisis for Flanders, Belgium and Europe, caused by the influx of refugees. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national and comparative and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. Today, western Europe is faced with the situation in which most refused asylum-seekers do not leave, or their continued presence is tolerated. Finally, the article outlines the themes arising from the contributions in the Special Issue.
The increasing scale of transnational migration is sociologically one of the most interesting features of contemporary life, not least because of the analytical challenges posed by the complexity of this phenomenon. While their accounts can be partly understood as reproducing neoliberal discourses, we argue that they are also a strategic reaction against the dependency that is inadvertently created by European welfare states. For most, destitution is inherent in such vulnerability, as refugees are forced to abandon all vestiges of their lives when fleeing. Their consequences for social integration are then briefly discussed. In practice, immigrants' access to work, education, housing and social life is obstructed by a wider range of implicit barriers Morris 2010. It explores the ambivalences within the cosmopolitan outlook as it seeks to reconcile its attentiveness to the actuality of violence in the modern age with its normative vision of perpetual peace. Further, much of the contemporary discussion about cosmopolitanism ranges over moral theory and political philosophy Breckenridge, et al.
What is perhaps less commonly noted is the degree to which this caused those supporters of the rights of asylum seekers and asylum as a right to re-orient their arguments away from issues to do with social integration, which had previously dominated the political agenda. The intellectual undertaking of redefining cosmopolitanism is a trans-disciplinary one, which includes geography, anthropology, ethnology, international relations, international law, political philosophy and political theory, and now sociology and social theory. In this article it is argued that the European identity is not only a research object for sociologists interested in identification: it is also their creation. This paper addresses the difficult relation of cosmopolitan ideas to the existence of war and violence. Thus, the mutual influence and reproduction of structure and agency will be highlighted. Cosmopolitanism must not be equalized with the global or globalization , with 'world system theory' Wallerstein , with 'world polity' Meyer and others , or with 'world-society' Luhmann.
This incorporates political strategy, public policy, civil society mobilisation, judicial decision-making, and their public impact, and advances a dynamic understanding of rights as part of the recurrent encounter between principles and politics. Beck 2006 has suggested that trans-national migration and the consolidation of human rights are features of an emergent cosmopolitan society in which we see a blurring of distinctions with respect to the rights of citizens and non-citizens. This incorporates political strategy, public policy, civil society mobilisation, judicial decision-making, and their public impact, and advances a dynamic understanding of rights as part of the recurrent encounter between principles and politics. Eight of the 16 with residual cancer underwent repetition of the combined resection and laser treatment, but this led to negative biopsies in only two cases. This paper argues that the presence of noncitizens on national territory has rather been accompanied by an expansion of distinctions in a system of civic stratification. Having considered why these arguments have resurfaced, the article suggests three scenarios for future European responses to the asylum crisis and their implications for liberal universalist values. States meanwhile agree that the numbers of persons seeking asylum for reasons not related to political persecution must be reduced, but European countries have reacted in very different ways.
Despite this frequent recognition, the term remains an enigmatic and rather imprecise label. Although there has been much criticism of various proposals, the author argues that State practice does not suggest that the prohibition of rtfoidtmtnt stands in the way ofentry restrictions, visa requirements or transport regulations. What is not openly admitted is a tolerance for administrative efforts that both channel assistance to irregular migrants and keep track of their numbers. Second, especially male interlocutors displayed a strong work ethic highlighting how they renegotiated their masculine worthiness in response to their loss of status and their refugee condition. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Exception policies: Due to political reasons, policymakers turn to the denial of benefits but formulate at the very same time exceptions to these exclusionary positions Rein, 2008. It describes the influence of historically changing discourses on asylum policies and it analyses the instrument of hardship commissions.
This approach does not readily address the position of asylum seekers, who are claiming an absolute right of protection, but an erosion of entitlement during status determination has been used as a means of deterrence and control. Migration researchers refer to this layered system of rights as 'civic stratification' Lockwood, 1996;Kofman, 2002;Morris, 2003Morris, , 2004 Morris, , 2010. On the one hand, memory represents the key to accessing social rights and thereby promotes the practice of citizenship. A fourth dilemma with which public officials are confronted in the process of deciding upon asylum claims is responsibility versus dissociation. Category: History Author : Karin B. We use three measures of the social position of migrants: occupational status, earned monthly incomes, and housing conditions.
The argument is made that in order to understand issues of cosmopolitan justice, sociologists must give more consideration to political culture. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of human rights as mutually exclusive categories. A grand and sweeping statement, the book is a major contribution to our thinking about the real but ideal world in which we all reside. The third section explores what it means to work as a member of the organization in the context of New Public Management. All her skills are on display in this excellent and important work. This article explores the Pinochet case, widely heralded as a landmark, as a case of 'intermestic' human rights that raises difficult normative and empirical questions concerning cosmopolitan justice.